Akasofu SI (1964) The development of the auroral substorm. Planet Space Sci 12(4):273–282. doi:10.1016/0032-0633(64)90151-5

Article
Google Scholar

Akasofu SI (1977) Magnetospheric substorms. Q J R Astron Soc 18(2):170–187

Google Scholar

Angelopoulos V (2008) The THEMIS mission. Space Sci Rev 141:5–34. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9336-1

Article
Google Scholar

Arnoldy RL et al (1987) Simultaneous measurement of aurora-related, irregular magnetic pulsations at northern and southern high latitudes. J Geophys Res 92(A11):12221–12232. doi:10.1029/JA092iA11p12221

Article
Google Scholar

Atkinson G (1967) Current system of geomagnetic bays. J Geophys Res 72(23):6063–6067. doi:10.1029/JZ072i023p06063

Article
Google Scholar

Blanchard GT, Lyons LR, Samson JC, Rich FJ (1995) Locating the polar-cap boundary from observations of 6300 angstrom auroral emission. J Geophys Res 100:7855–7862

Article
Google Scholar

Bösinger T (1989) On the spectral index of the Pi1B power spectrum. Ann Geophys 7(4):375–386

Google Scholar

Bösinger T, Yahnin AG (1987) PI1B type magnetic pulsation as a high time resolution monitor of substorm development. Ann Geophys Ser A 5(4):231–237

Google Scholar

Chi PJ, Russell CT (2005) Travel-time magnetoseismology: magnetospheric sounding by timing the tremors in space. Geophys Res Lett 32:L18108. doi:10.1029/2005GL023441

Article
Google Scholar

Chi PJ, Russell CT, Ohtani S (2009) Substorm onset timing via traveltime magnetoseismology. Geophys Res Lett 36:L08107. doi:10.1029/2008GL036574

Article
Google Scholar

Donovan EF, Trondsen TS, Cogger LL, Jackel BJ (2003) All-sky imaging within the Canadian CANOPUS and NORSTAR projects. Sodank Geophys Obs Publ 92:109–112

Google Scholar

Ferdousi B, Raeder J (2016) Signal propagation time from the magnetotail to the ionosphere: OpenGGCM simulation. J Geophys Res Space Phys 121:6549–6561. doi:10.1002/2016JA022445

Article
Google Scholar

Frey HU, Mende SB (2006) Substorm onsets as observed by IMAGE-FUV. In: Syrjäsuo M, Donovan EF (eds) Proceedings of ICS-8, Univ. of Calgary, Canada, pp 71–75

Frey HU, Mende SB, Angelopoulos V, Donovan EF (2004) Substorm onset observations by IMAGE-FUV. J Geophys Res 109:A10304. doi:10.1029/2004JA010607

Article
Google Scholar

Henderson MG (1994) Implications of viking imager results for substorm models. Univ. of Calgary, Calgary

Google Scholar

Hones EW Jr (1976) The magnetotail: its generation and dissipation. In: Williams DJ (ed) Physics of solar planetary environments: proceedings of the international symposium on solar-terrestrial physics, vol 2. AGU, Washington, D. C., pp 558–571

Jacobs JA, Kato Y, Matsushita S, Troitskaya VA (1964) Classification of geomagnetic micropulsations. J Geophys Res 69:180–181

Article
Google Scholar

Kalmoni NME, Rae IJ, Watt CEJ, Murphy KR, Forsyth C, Owen CJ (2015) Statistical characterization of the growth and spatial scales of the substorm onset arc. J Geophys Res Space Phys 120:8503–8516. doi:10.1002/2015JA021470

Article
Google Scholar

Kalmoni NME, Rae IJ, Murphy KR, Forsyth C, Watt CEJ, Owen CJ (2017) Statistical azimuthal structuring of the substorm onset arc: implications for the onset mechanism. Geophys Res Lett 44:2078–2087. doi:10.1002/2016GL071826

Keiling A, Takahashi K (2011) Review of Pi2 models. Space Sci Rev 161(1–4):63–148. doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9818-4

Article
Google Scholar

Keiling A, Fujimoto M, Hasegawa H, Honary F, Sergeev V, Semenov VS, Frey HU, Amm O, Reme H, Dandouras I, Lucek E (2006) Association of Pi2 pulsations and pulsed re- connection: ground and cluster observations in the tail lobe at 16RE. Ann Geophys 24:3433–3449. doi:10.5194/angeo-24-3433-2006

Article
Google Scholar

Kepko L, Kivelson MG (1999) Generation of Pi2 pulsations by bursty bulk flows. J Geophys Res 104:25021–25034

Article
Google Scholar

Lessard MR et al (2006) Nature of Pi1B pulsations as inferred from ground and satellite observations. Geophys Res Lett 33:L14108. doi:10.1029/2006GL026411

Article
Google Scholar

Lester M et al (1983) Polarization patterns of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations and the substorm current wedge. J Geophys Res 88(A10):7958–7966. doi:10.1029/JA088iA10p07958

Article
Google Scholar

Lester M, Hughes WJ, Singer HJ (1984) Longitudinal structure in Pi 2 pulsations and the substorm current wedge. J Geophys Res 89(A7):5489–5494. doi:10.1029/JA089iA07p05489

Article
Google Scholar

Liou K, Zhang Y-L (2009) Comment on wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset by K. Murphy et al. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2009JA014207

Google Scholar

Liou K, Meng C-I, Newell PT, Takahashi K, Ohtani S-I, Lui ATY, Brittnacher M, Parks G (2000) Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using polar ultraviolet imagery. J Geophys Res 105(A2):2495–2505. doi:10.1029/1999JA900416

Article
Google Scholar

Lui ATY (1991) A synthesis of magnetospheric substorm models. J Geophys Res 96(A2):1849–1856. doi:10.1029/90JA02430

Article
Google Scholar

Lui ATY (2009) Comment on “Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset”. Science 324(5933):1391. doi:10.1126/science.1167726

Mann IR et al (2008) The upgraded CARISMA magnetometer array in the THEMIS era. Space Sci Rev 141:413–451. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9457-6

Article
Google Scholar

McPherron RL et al (1973) Satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms on August 15, 1968. 9. Phenomenological model for substorms. Eos Trans AGU 54(4):206

Google Scholar

Mende SB, Harris SE, Frey HU, Angelopoulos V, Russell CT, Donovan E, Jackel B, Greffen M, Peticolas LM (2008) The THEMIS array of ground-based observatories for the study of auroral substorms. Space Sci Rev 141:357–387. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9380-x

Article
Google Scholar

Menk FW, Waters CL (2013) Introduction, in magnetoseismology: ground-based remote sensing of earth’s magnetosphere. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/9783527652051.ch1

Book
Google Scholar

Milling DK et al (2008) Ionospheric localization and expansion of long-period Pi1 pulsations at substorm onset. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2008GL033672

Google Scholar

Motoba T, Hosokawa K, Kadokura A, Sato N (2012) Magnetic conjugacy of northern and southern auroral beads. Geophys Res Lett 39:L08108. doi:10.1029/2012GL051599

Article
Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Rae IJ, Mann IR, Milling DK, Watt CEJ, Ozeke L, Frey HU, Angelopoulos V, Russell CT (2009a) Wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2008JA013548

Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Rae IJ, Mann IR, Milling DK, Watt CE, Ozeke L, Frey HU, Angelopoulos V, Russell CT (2009b) Wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset. J Geophys Res 114:A10

Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Rae IJ, Mann IR, Milling DK (2011a) On the nature of ULF wave power during nightside auroral activations and substorms: 1. Spatial distribution. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2010JA015757

Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Rae IJ, Mann IR, Walsh AP, Milling DK, Kale A (2011b) The dependence of Pi2 waveforms on periodic velocity enhancements within bursty bulk flows. Ann Geophys. doi:10.5194/angeo-29-493-2011

Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Mann IR, Rae IJ, Waters CL, Frey HU, Kale A, Singer HJ, Anderson BJ, Korth H (2013) The detailed spatial structure of field-aligned currents comprising the substorm current wedge. J Geophys Res Space Phys 118:7714–7727. doi:10.1002/2013JA018979

Article
Google Scholar

Murphy KR, Mann IR, Rae IJ, Walsh AP, Frey HU (2015) Inner magnetospheric onset preceding reconnection and tail dynamics during substorms: can substorms initiate in two different regions? J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:9684–9701. doi:10.1002/2014JA019795

Article
Google Scholar

Newell PT, Lee AR, Liou K, Ohtani S-I, Sotirelis T, Wing S (2010) Substorm cycle dependence of various types of aurora. J Geophys Res 115:A09226. doi:10.1029/2010JA015331

Google Scholar

Nishimura Y, Lyons L, Zou S, Angelopoulos V, Mende S (2010) Substorm triggering by new plasma intrusion: THEMIS all-sky imager observations. J Geophys Res 115:A07222. doi:10.1029/2009JA015166

Google Scholar

Nose M et al (1998) Automated detection of Pi 2 pulsations using wavelet analysis: 1 method and an application for substorm monitoring. Earth Planets Space 50:773–783

Article
Google Scholar

Ohtani S (2004) Flowbursts in the plasma sheet and auroral substorm onset: observational constraints on connection between midtail and near-earth substorm processes. Space Sci Rev 113:77–96. doi:10.1023/B:SPAC.0000042940.59358.2f.493-509

Article
Google Scholar

Peticolas LM et al (2008) The time history of events and macroscale interactions during substorms (THEMIS) education and outreach (E/PO) program. Space Sci Rev 141:557–583. doi:10.1007/S11214-008-9458-5

Posch JL et al (2007) Statistical observations of spatial characteristics of Pi1B pulsations. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 69(15):1775–1796. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2007.07.015

Article
Google Scholar

Pu ZY et al (1999) Ballooning instability in the presence of a plasma flow: a synthesis of tail reconnection and current disruption models for the initiation of substorms. J Geophys Res 104(A5):10235–10248. doi:10.1029/1998JA900104

Article
Google Scholar

Rae IJ et al. (2007) Pi2 pulsations: field line resonances or a driven response? In: Syrjäsuo M, Donovan EF (eds) International Conference on Substorms (ICS-8), University of Calgary, Canada

Rae IJ, Watt CEJ (2016) ULF waves above the nightside auroral oval during substorm onset. In: Keiling A, Lee DH, Nakariakov V (eds) Low frequency waves in space plasmas. Wiley, Hoboken. doi:10.1002/9781119055006.ch7

Google Scholar

Rae IJ et al (2009a) Timing and localization of ionospheric signatures associated with substorm expansion phase onset. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2008JA013559

Google Scholar

Rae IJ et al (2009b) Near-earth initiation of a terrestrial substorm. J Geophys Res 114:A07220. doi:10.1029/2008JA013771

Google Scholar

Rae IJ, Watt CEJ, Mann IR, Murphy KR, Samson JC, Kabin K, Angelopoulos V (2010) Optical characterization of the growth and spatial structure of a substorm onset arc. J Geophys Res 115:A10222. doi:10.1029/2010JA015376

Google Scholar

Rae IJ, Murphy KR, Watt CEJ, Mann IR (2011) On the nature of ULF wave power during nightside auroral activations and substorms: 2. Temporal evolution. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2010JA015762.3771

Google Scholar

Rae IJ, Watt CEJ, Murphy KR, Frey HU, Ozeke LG, Milling DK, Mann IR (2012) The correlation of ULF waves and auroral intensity before, during and after substorm expansion phase onset. J Geophys Res 117:A08213. doi:10.1029/2012JA017534

Google Scholar

Roux A, Perraut S, Robert P, Morane A, Pedersen A, Korth A, Kremser G, Aparicio B, Rodgers D, Pellinen R (1991) Plasma sheet instability related to the westward traveling surge. J Geophys Res 96(A10):17697–17714. doi:10.1029/91JA01106

Russell CT et al (2008) THEMIS ground-based magnetometers. Space Sci Rev 141:389–412

Article
Google Scholar

Samson JC, Lyons LR, Newell PT, Creutzberg F, Xu B (1992) Proton aurora and substorm intensifications. Geophys Res Lett 19:2167–2170

Article
Google Scholar

Sibeck DG, Angelopoulos V (2008) THEMIS science objectives and mission phases. Space Sci Rev 141:35–59. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9393-5

Article
Google Scholar

Tamao T (1964) The structure of three-dimensional hydromagnetic waves in a uniform cold plasma. J Geomagn Geoelectr 18:89–114

Article
Google Scholar

Uozumi T, Yumoto K, Kawano H, Yoshikawa A, Olson JV, Solovyev SI, Vershinin EF (2000) Characteristics of energy transfer of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations: latitudinal dependence. Geophys Res Lett 27:1619

Article
Google Scholar

Uozumi T et al (2004) Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations observed at ground high-latitudes. J Geophys Res 109:A08203. doi:10.1029/2003JA009898

Article
Google Scholar

Uozumi T et al (2009) Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 pulsations observed at high- and low-latitude MAGDAS/CPMN stations: a statistical study. J Geophys Res 114:A11207. doi:10.1029/2009JA014163

Article
Google Scholar

Walsh AP et al (2010) Comprehensive ground-based and in situ observations of substorm expansion phase onset. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2010JA015748

Google Scholar

Wing S, Gkioulidou M, Johnson JR, Newell PT, Wang C-P (2013) Auroral particle precipitation characterized by the substorm cycle. J Geophys Res Space Phys 118:1022–1039. doi:10.1002/jgra.50160

Article
Google Scholar

Yeoman TK, Orr D (1989) Phase and spectral power of mid- latitude Pi2 pulsations: evidence for a plasmaspheric cavity resonance. Planet Space Sci 37:1367–1383

Article
Google Scholar