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Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

Fig. 5 | Geoscience Letters

Fig. 5

From: Using ultra-low frequency waves and their characteristics to diagnose key physics of substorm onset

Fig. 5

A minimum curvature fit to the difference in onset times across the entire Canadian sector for (a) Pi2 and Pi1-2, where red (blue) represents Pi2 waves occurring first (second), and (b) Pi1 and Pi1-2, where blue represents Pi1 waves occurring second, with respect to Pi1-2 waves. The uncertainty in the relative timing between ULF wave bands is defined as the summation of each individual ULF wave band uncertainty. Hence, the timing uncertainties associated with each comparison are as follows: Pi1–Pi1-2 is ± 24 s, Pi1-2–Pi2 is ± 48 s. Any regions in white represent locations where the onset of ULF waves in each band is at the same time within the inherent uncertainties outlined here. Each relative timing analysis thus uses contours which start at the first resolvable timing difference outside these different uncertainties, and those that cannot be resolved are marked in white

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