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Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

Table 1 Tsunami scenarios of earthquake, submarine mass failure, and volcano origins in eastern Indonesia

From: Complex tsunami hazards in eastern Indonesia from seismic and non-seismic sources: Deterministic modelling based on historical and modern data

Scenario Location Source parameters Coastal tsunami height
Earthquake-1: FBT-\(\hbox {BF}^a\) Top-right coordinate:
121.604°E and 8.011°S
Depth = 10 km
Strike = 80°
Dip = 10°
Flores Sea
Length = 140 km
Width = 40 km
Slip = 4 m
Rake = 90°
Mw = 7.8
\(\hbox {Max}^e\) = 5.3 m
\(\hbox {Mean}^e\) = 2.5 m
Earthquake-2: FBT-\(\hbox {SF}^b\) Top-right coordinate:
121.627°E and 8.535°S
Depth = 2.7 km
Strike = 70°
Dip = 28 °
\(\hbox {Max}^e\) = 4.2 m
\(\hbox {Mean}^e\) = 2.4 m
Submarine mass failure-1: SMF-5 \(\hbox {km}^3\) Centroid =
117.610°E and 1.875°S
Water depth = 1.5 km
Slope = 12°
Bulk density = 2300 kg/\(\hbox {m}^3\)
Slump failures mechanism
Length \(\times\) Width \(\times\) Thickness =
4.5 km \(\times\) 5 km \(\times\) 760 m
Volume = 5 \(\hbox {km}^3\)
Travelled distance = 375 m
E \(\hbox {Kalimantan}^f\):
Max = 1.1 m
Mean = 0.1 m
W Sulawesi:
Max = 2.9 m
Mean = 0.5 m
Submarine mass failure-2: SMF-225 \(\hbox {km}^3\) Length \(\times\) Width \(\times\) Thickness =
30 km \(\times\) 25 km \(\times\) 1000 m
Volume = 225 \(\hbox {km}^3\)
Travelled distance = 2000 m
E \(\hbox {Kalimantan}^f\):
Max = 4.3 m
Mean = 0.8 m
W Sulawesi:
Max = 11.1 m
Mean = 2.2 m
Volcano-1: 1871 \(\hbox {Ruang}^c\) Ruang Volcano, the Sangihe Islands, Molucca Sea
Flank collapse at the eastern part
Radius = 2 km
Volume = 0.1 \(\hbox {km}^3\)
Max amplitude = 50 m
Max = 28.0 m
Mean = 18.4 m
Volcano-2: AK \(\hbox {Type}^d\) Radius = 2 km
Volume = 0.26 \(\hbox {km}^3\)
Max amplitude = 125 m
Max = 54.2 m
Mean = 35.3 m
  1. \(^a\) Flores back-arc thrust from the basal fault; \(^b\) Flores back-arc thrust from the splay fault;
  2. \(^c\) Scenario for the 1871 Ruang Volcanic-tsunami event; \(^d\) The 2018 Anak Krakatau type scenario;
  3. \(^e\) Between 121.6°E and 123.0°E on the northern shore of Flores Island;
  4. \(^f\) By excluding coastal height at the Mangkalihat Peninsula