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Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

Table 2 Comparison with previous studies conducted across the globe, India, and river Hooghly

From: Spatiotemporal distribution of potentially toxic elements in the lower Gangetic delta and their implications for non-carcinogenic health risk management

  Al Bi Cd Co Cr Cu Fe Mn Mo Ni Pb U V Zn
Global Rivers and Estuaries
Odiel River, Olıas et al. (2004)      7600 23,470 13,700    207     
Ghana stream rivers, Asante et al. (2007)    1.3 0.52 2.65   682    0.85 1.4    
Yangzhong water system, Zhou et al. (2008a, b)   0.043 0.117 0.319 6.414    82.634    2.585 0.8 2.79 114.6
Yangtze River, Wu et al. (2009)    4.7 20.9 20.9 10.7 239.8 5.4 11.7 13.4 55.1   10.5 9.4
Han River, Li and Zhang, (2010)    2.45 3 12.25 15.9 36.82 31.15    1.71   70.2  
Costa Concordia wreck, Schintu et al. (2018)    0.006   0.048 0.142     0.154 0.003   2. 7  
Padma River, Jolly et al. (2013)     2.0 3.0 20.0 199.0 15.0   8.14 1.5    7.26
Sydney Estuary, Birch and Lee, (2018)     84 303 689 47,000 6965   86 642    1127
Other rivers in India
Subarnarekha River, Senapati and Sahu, (1996)      1.13 15.88     15.75 19.13    
Mahanadi River, Konhauser et al. (1997)      9.8 5.9     7.2 2.68    23
Gomti River, Gaur et al. (2005)    0.69   5.6 22.4 3054.6 116.8   17.1 22.3    84.4
Manjira River, Krishna et al. (2009)     16.8   161.8 72.9 26.7   2.1     11
Previous studies in River Hooghly
River Hooghly, Sarkar et al. (2007)       20.2 185.8 204.4    29.3    190.3
River Hooghly and Sundarban coastal water, Bhattacharya et al. (2015)    0.64   41.56 56.05     48.4 21.25    58.94
River Hooghly, Mitra et al. (2018b)    1.98 17.15 60.88 46.32 55,163.3 813.79   41.08 30.09   107.2 63.24
Present study               
Summer 10,197.8   7.9 30.4 33.9 50.4 9331.4 196.2   42.9 16.2    63.9
Monsoon 8489.4   5.41 18.90 21.00 36.98 7316.6 159.5   36.4 12.54    50.40
Winter 9895.2   9.0 31.2 34.3 54.4 10,048.0 219.1   53.7 18.0    76.3
Mean 9527.5   7.4 26.9 29.7 47.3 8898.7 191.6   44.3 15.6    63.5
WHO and Indian Standards (WHO, 2008, 2011; BIS, 2012) 200   3 40 50 2000 300 500   20 10    3000
  1. All values are in µg/l