Skip to main content

Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

Table 1. 17 CMIP5 models and 23 CMIP6 models that produce reasonable nonlinearity (half of the observed) between PC1 and PC2

From: Two-year consecutive concurrences of positive Indian Ocean Dipole and Central Pacific El Niño preconditioned the 2019/2020 Australian “black summer” bushfires

CMIP5 α CMIP6 α
FIO-ESM − 0.5155 CAMS-CSM1-0 − 0.2902
GISS-E2-R − 0.1995 FGOALS-f3-L − 0.5547
bcc-csm1-1-m − 0.2518 FGOALS-g3 − 0.3096
CCSM4 − 0.3245 CMCC-CM2-SR5 − 0.4055
CESM1-BGC − 0.1776 CNRM-CM6-1 − 0.1662
CESM1-CAM5 − 0.3953 CNRM-ESM2-1 − 0.1687
CMCC-CESM − 0.2502 EC-Earth3 − 0.2662
CMCC-CM − 0.1872 EC-Earth3-Veg − 0.2665
CMCC-CMS − 0.3155 FIO-ESM-2–0 − 0.3751
CNRM-CM5 − 0.1738 MIROC6 − 0.3198
FGOALS-s2 − 0.2142 MIROC-ES2L − 0.3466
GFDL-CM3 − 0.2931 HadGEM3-GC31-LL − 0.1785
GFDL-ESM2M − 0.3882 MPI-ESM1-2-h − 0.2660
GISS-E2-H − 0.1789 MPI-ESM1-2-LR − 0.2338
IPSL-CM5B-LR − 0.2594 MRI-ESM2-0 − 0.3387
MIROC5 − 0.3605 GISS-E2-1-G − 0.3644
MRI-CGCM3 − 0.1583 CESM2 − 0.3216
   CESM2-WACCM − 0.2436
   NorESM2-LM − 0.2505
   NorESM2-MM − 0.2077
   GFDL-ESM4 − 0.1931
   CIESM − 0.1886
   MCM-UA-1-0 − 0.2888
  1. Here we use α to indicate the strength of the nonlinear relationship as in PC2(t) = α PC1(t)2. (see Data session; see also Cai et al. 2018). The observed α based on multi-products as in Cai et al. (2018) is -0.31. The more negative in α, the higher nonlinearity in the ENSO system