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Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

Table 1 Permittivities (both real and imaginary parts) for GPS L1, L2 and L5 bands

From: A full-polarization GNSS-R Delay-Doppler-Map (DDM) simulator for bare soil freeze/thaw process detection

Ts (°C)L1 carrier frequency
Real partImaginary part
− 18.671.03
+ 121.13.54
  1. The soil temperature is changed from − 1 to 1 °C