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Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)

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Fig. 5 | Geoscience Letters

Fig. 5

From: The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool: critical to world oceanography and world climate

Fig. 5

Map of the southeast Asian and Australian regions combined showing a bathymetry having lowered sea level by 120 m, so as to show what the periphery of the landmasses would have looked like at the LGM. Note the increase in size of Australia, in particular in its northern portion showing an significantly exposed Sahul Shelf and also the exposed Sunda Shelf spanning from the Gulf of Thailand down to south of Borneo and north of the tip of Java. Plotted on this LGM topography is a system of palaeo-rivers, some of which had already been delineated by Molengraaf and Weber (1919), Kuenen (1950) and updated by Solihuddin (2014), all plotted in white, with a new interpretation of additional rivers shown here in red. The map was generated using the ETOPO1 global relief data set available at the following web site: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/relief/ETOPO1/docs/. The pale blue colouration relates to large lakes that held water during the LGM. North of Australia is the large ‘Lake Carpentaria’ [see Chivas et al. (2001) and Yokoyama et al. 2001]. The other two LGM lakes were identified in maps (in the northern end of the Gulf of Thailand and northwest of Borneo) generated by Sathiamurthy and Voris (2006). Note that most of the palaeo-rivers flow in the southerly direction, thus indicating a northern source of water

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